Studies analyzing NBA data have shown that per-minute production remains fairly consistent (also read: John Hollinger’s 2002/03 Basketball Prospectus) when a player’s role changes from small minutes to big minutes, with even slight improvements.
This allows for the elimination of playing time bias (the more minutes, the more opportunities) from individual player stats. Common adjustments are per 40 minutes or per 36 minutes from overseas. I use per 28 minutes for European basketball, the average number of minutes per game Euroleague starters (players who started all games) posted throughout a three year period.
Why the pace-adjustment? The influence of game pace on individual statistics is less extreme than minutes played over the course of a full season, but it is particularly important when comparing stats from different eras or when working with a small sample (example: a FIBA tournament).
The pace-adjustment is necessary due to the fact that some teams take their shots earlier on the clock than others. The minimum in recent years in the Euroleague was CSKA Moscow 08/09 at 64.7 possessions per 40 minutes, while Nancy had 77.3 possessions in 08/09. That’s a difference of almost 13 possessions, or in other words, in a normal-paced Euroleague game of 71 possessions, seven extra minutes. Which leads to a significant difference in scoring opportunities for the players.
The per 28 minutes pace-adjusted stats appear as “per 50 possessions” in stats.in the game.
MINUTES-WEIGHTED ROSTER DATA
W.AGE = Minutes-weighted roster age. (in years)
W.SIZE = Minutes-weighted roster size/height. (in cm)
MIN = Minutes played
PTS = Points scored
CRM/A = Layups/Dunks made and attempted
MRM/A = “Rest Two” = Shots from two point range made and attempted that are not dunks or lay ups. I generally think there is validity to this stat, as the league-wide percentages from shots tagged as “Lay Up” or “Dunk” (1), “Two Pointer” (2) and “Three Pointer” (3) perfectly match the respective Hoopdata shot percentages from within two feet or “At Rim” (1), 4-23 feet (2) (spread over three different mid range areas on Hoopdata) and three pointers (3). They also match the shot location specifics from the German BBL I analysed in the 2010/11 season.
Looking at the data, there appears to be one scorekeeping team (Maccabi) which applies different criteria for the disctinction between Dunk/Lay Up and Two Pointer, with the Two Pointer dominating the scoring output. This is the case for Maccabi as well as for visiting teams, who in all other games are showing completely different shooting patterns.
3PM/A = Three point shots made and attempted
FGM/A = Field goals made and attempted
FTM/A = Free throws made and attempted
AST = Assists
ASD = Assisted Field Goals
STL = Steals
TO = Turnovers
CHR = Charges Drawn
PTB = Putbacks
OFF = Offensive Rebounds
DEF = Defensive Rebounds
REB = Total Rebounds
BS = Blocked Shots
BA = Blocks against
PF = Personal Fouls
RF = Fouls Drawn
+/- = Plus/minus. Team point differential while the player was on the floor.
BOXSCORE SUMMARY METRICS
EFF = Basic efficiency. Formula: EFF = (PTS + REB + AST + STL + BS) – ((FGA – FGM) + (FTA – FTM) + TOV)
RKG = Euroleague Ranking / ACB Valoration. Formula: RKG = (PTS + REB + AST + STL + BL + RF) – ((FGA – FGM) + (FTA – FTM) + TOV + BA + PF)
GS = Game Score. A raw version of PER to be applied on single games. Formula: GS = PTS*1.0 + FGM*0.4 + FGA*(-0.7) + (FTA-FTM)*(-0.4) + OREB*0.7 + DREB*0.3 + STL*1.0 + AST*0.7 + BLK*0.7 + PF*(-0.4) + TO*(-1.0)
PER = Player Effieciency Rating. Formula:
uPER = (1 / MP) *
+ (2/3) * AST
+ (2 - factor * (team_AST / team_FG)) * FG
+ (FT *0.5 * (1 + (1 - (team_AST / team_FG)) + (2/3) * (team_AST / team_FG)))
- VOP * TOV
- VOP * DRB% * (FGA - FG)
- VOP * 0.44 * (0.44 + (0.56 * DRB%)) * (FTA - FT)
+ VOP * (1 - DRB%) * (TRB - ORB)
+ VOP * DRB% * ORB
+ VOP * STL
+ VOP * DRB% * BLK
- PF * ((lg_FT / lg_PF) - 0.44 * (lg_FTA / lg_PF) * VOP) ]
factor = (2 / 3) – (0.5 * (lg_AST / lg_FG)) / (2 * (lg_FG / lg_FT))
VOP = lg_PTS / (lg_FGA – lg_ORB + lg_TOV + 0.44 * lg_FTA)
DRB% = (lg_TRB – lg_ORB) / lg_TRB
sPER = A simplified version of PER. More here. Formula: PER = 3301.2*(3.498*FGM-1.097*FGA+1.412*3PM+1.861*FTM-0.538*FTA+1.062*ORB+0.422*DRB+0.968*AST+1.559*STL+1.062*BLK-1.529*TO-0.479*PF)/(Pace*Min) with “Pace”, in this case, being possessions per 48 minutes.
These percentage stats are in some cases even slightly more accurate than pace- and minute-adjusted stats, but they also require more reference data.
3A/FGA = Percentage of three point field goal attempts per field goal attempts.
AST/FGM = Percentage of field goals that were created by an assist
AST% = Assist Percentage; formula is 100 * AST / (((MP / (Tm MP / 5)) * Tm FG) – FG). Assist percentage is an estimate of the percentage of teammate field goals a player assisted while he was on on the floor.
BLK% = Block Percentage; formula is 100 * (BLK * (Tm MP / 5)) / (MP * (Opp FGA – Opp 3PA)). Block percentage is an estimate of the percentage of opponent two-point field goal attempts blocked by the player while he was on the floor.
DRB% = Defensive Rebound Percentage; formula is 100 * (DRB * (Tm MP / 5)) / (MP * (Tm DRB + Opp ORB)). Defensive rebound percentage is an estimate of the percentage of available defensive rebounds a player grabbed while he was on the floor.
EFG% = Effective Field Goal Percentage; the formula is (FG + 0.5 * 3P) / FGA. This statistic adjusts for the fact that a 3-point field goal is worth one more point than a 2-point field goal. For example, suppose Player A goes 4 for 10 with 2 threes, while Player B goes 5 for 10 with 0 threes. Each player would have 10 points from field goals, and thus would have the same effective field goal percentage (50%).
FTR = Free Throw Rate; free throw attempts per field goal attempts.
Ortg = Offensive Rating = Points per 100 possession, a pace- and overtime-adjusted refinement of points per game. The opposite for defensive rating (Drtg = opponent points per 100 opponent possessions).
ORB% = Offensive Rebound Percentage; formula is 100 * (ORB * (Tm MP / 5)) / (MP * (Tm ORB + Opp DRB)). Offensive rebound percentage is an estimate of the percentage of available offensive rebounds a player grabbed while he was on the floor.
Pace = Team possessions per 40 minutes. Formula is (FGA + 0.47 * FTA – Off Reb + TOV) / Tm MP * 40
PYTH% = Pythagorean Winning Percentage. Translates offensive and defensive rating into an expected winning percentage. Formula is Ortg^13.92/(Ortg^13.92+Drtg^13.92)*100. Read more here.
STL% = Steal Percentage; formula is 100 * (STL * (Tm MP / 5)) / (MP * Opp Poss). Steal Percentage is an estimate of the percentage of opponent possessions that end with a steal by the player while he was on the floor.
Team OR% = Team offensive rebound percentage. Formula = OR / (OR + Opp DR)*100
Team DR% = Team defensive rebound percentage. Formula = DR / (DR + Opp OR)*100
TO% = Turnover Percentage; formula is 100 * TOV / (FGA + 0.47 * FTA + TOV). Turnover percentage is an estimate of turnovers per 100 plays. A play is here defined as a possession-altering action: field goal attempt, turnover or free throw attempt.
TRB% = Total Rebound Percentage; formula is 100 * (TRB * (Tm MP / 5)) / (MP * (Tm TRB + Opp TRB)). Total rebound percentage is an estimate of the percentage of available rebounds a player grabbed while he was on the floor.
TS% = True Shooting Percentage; formula is PTS / (2 * (FGA + 0.47 * FTA)). True shooting percentage is a measure of shooting efficiency that takes into account field goals, 3 point field goals, and free throws.
USG% = Usage Percentage; formula is 100 * ((FGA + 0.47 * FTA + TOV) * (Tm MP / 5)) / (MP * (Tm FGA + 0.47 * Tm FTA + Tm TOV)). Usage percentage is an estimate of the percentage of team plays used by a player while he was on the floor.